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Circuit and system method for improving switching power supply efficiency

Circuit and system method for improving switching power supply efficiency

The power consumption of a switching power supply includes a fixed loss due to a parasitic resistance of a semiconductor switch, a magnetic element, and a wiring, and a switching loss at the time of switching operation. For fixed loss, since it mainly depends on the characteristics of the component itself, it needs to be suppressed by the improvement of the component technology. In terms of magnetic components, research on a low-loss winding method that takes into account the skin effect and the adjacent wire effect has been in existence for a long time. In order to reduce the switching loss caused by the switching surge of the transformer leakage inductance, a new circuit technology such as a snubber circuit with a surge energy regeneration function has been developed.
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The following are circuits and system methods to improve the efficiency of switching power supplies:
The first method: ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching), ZCS (Zero Current Switching), etc., using resonant switches to reduce switching losses.
This is extremely effective in reducing switching losses, but the problem is that the fixed loss due to peak current and peak voltage will increase.
The second method is to reduce the switching loss by using Edge ResONance represented by an active clamp circuit.
This method is an active buffer (Active Snubber) developed to solve this problem. It is a very practical ZVS method; however, the problem of efficiency degradation caused by reactive current under light load conditions is one. Big defects.
The third method: reducing the fixed loss by extending the on-time of the switching element to suppress the peak current.
In this method, the method of using the tap sensor is relatively effective, and it can cope with the surge phenomenon caused by the leakage inductance.
The fourth method: to reduce the fixed loss by improving the synchronous rectification circuit in the case of low voltage and large current.
The two-stage structure is one of the methods to achieve efficient operation of the synchronous rectification circuit. It adopts a fixed time ratio close to 0.5 and is controlled by the converter of the front stage. It is a traditional thinking mode that “two-stage structure will lead to a decrease in efficiency” and is very effective in low voltage and high current applications.
The fifth method: using the parallel structure of the converter to reduce the fixed loss.
Finally, this method can be used to connect the entire converter circuit in parallel or in a parallel configuration like the current multiplier.


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